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April 16, 2022

Plato, Euthyphro

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[2α]

Εὐθύφρων
τί νεώτερον Σώκρατεςγέγονενὅτι σὺ τὰς ἐν Λυκείῳ καταλιπὼν διατριβὰς ἐνθάδε νῦν διατρίβεις περὶ τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως στοάνοὐ γάρ που καὶ σοί γε δίκη τις οὖσα τυγχάνει πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα ὥσπερ ἐμοί.

Σωκράτης
οὔτοι δὴ Ἀθηναῖοί γε Εὐθύφρωνδίκην αὐτὴν καλοῦσιν ἀλλὰ γραφήν.

[2a]

Euthyphro
What strange thing has happened, Socrates, that you have left your accustomed haunts in the Lyceum and are now haunting the portico where the king archon sits? For it cannot be that you have an action before the king, as I have.

Socrates
Our Athenians, Euthyphro, do not call it an action, but an indictment.

Euthyphro
What? Somebody has, it seems, brought an indictment against you;

[2β]

Εὐθύφρων
τί φῄςγραφὴν σέ τιςὡς ἔοικεγέγραπταιοὐ γὰρ ἐκεῖνό γε καταγνώσομαιὡς σὺ ἕτερον.

Σωκράτης
οὐ γὰρ οὖν.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλὰ σὲ ἄλλος;

Σωκράτης
πάνυ γε.

Εὐθύφρων
τίς οὗτος;

Σωκράτης
οὐδ᾽ αὐτὸς πάνυ τι γιγνώσκω Εὐθύφρωντὸν ἄνδρανέος γάρ τίς μοι φαίνεται καὶ ἀγνώςὀνομάζουσι μέντοι αὐτόνὡς ἐγᾦμαιΜέλητονἔστι δὲ τῶν δήμων Πιτθεύςεἴ τινα νῷ ἔχεις Πιτθέα Μέλητον οἷον τετανότριχα καὶ οὐ πάνυ εὐγένειονἐπίγρυπον δέ.

Εὐθύφρων
οὐκ ἐννοῶ Σώκρατεςἀλλὰ δὴ τίνα γραφήν

[2b] for I don’t accuse you of having brought one against anyone else.

Socrates
Certainly not.

Euthyphro
But someone else against you?

Socrates
Quite so.

Euthyphro
Who is he?

Socrates
I don’t know the man very well myself, Euthyphro, for he seems to be a young and unknown person. His name, however, is Meletus, I believe. And he is of the deme of Pitthus, if you remember any Pitthian Meletus, with long hair and only a little beard, but with a hooked nose.

Euthyphro
I don’t remember him, Socrates. But

[2ξ] σε γέγραπται;

Σωκράτης
ἥντιναοὐκ ἀγεννῆἔμοιγε δοκεῖτὸ γὰρ νέον ὄντα τοσοῦτον πρᾶγμα ἐγνωκέναι οὐ φαῦλόν ἐστινἐκεῖνος γάρὥς φησινοἶδε τίνα τρόπον οἱ νέοι διαφθείρονται καὶ τίνες οἱ διαφθείροντες αὐτούςκαὶ κινδυνεύει σοφός τις εἶναικαὶ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀμαθίαν κατιδὼν ὡς διαφθείροντος τοὺς ἡλικιώτας αὐτοῦἔρχεται κατηγορήσων μου ὥσπερ πρὸς μητέρα πρὸς τὴν πόλινκαὶ φαίνεταί μοι τῶν πολιτικῶν

[2c] what sort of an indictment has he brought against you?

Socrates
What sort? No mean one, it seems to me; for the fact that, young as he is, he has apprehended so important a matter reflects no small credit upon him. For he says he knows how the youth are corrupted and who those are who corrupt them. He must be a wise man; who, seeing my lack of wisdom and that I am corrupting his fellows, comes to the State, as a boy runs to his mother, to accuse me. And he seems to me to be the only one of the public men who begins in the right way; for the right way

[2δ] μόνος ἄρχεσθαι ὀρθῶςὀρθῶς γάρ ἐστι τῶν νέων πρῶτον ἐπιμεληθῆναι ὅπως ἔσονται ὅτι ἄριστοιὥσπερ γεωργὸν ἀγαθὸν τῶν νέων φυτῶν εἰκὸς πρῶτον ἐπιμεληθῆναιμετὰ δὲ τοῦτο καὶ τῶν ἄλλωνκαὶ δὴ καὶ Μέλητος ἴσως πρῶτον

[2d] is to take care of the young men first, to make them as good as possible, just as a good husbandman will naturally take care of the young plants first and afterwards of the rest. And so Meletus, perhaps, is first

[3α] μὲν ἡμᾶς ἐκκαθαίρει τοὺς τῶν νέων τὰς βλάστας διαφθείρονταςὥς φησινἔπειτα μετὰ τοῦτο δῆλον ὅτι τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ἐπιμεληθεὶς πλείστων καὶ μεγίστων ἀγαθῶν αἴτιος τῇ πόλει γενήσεταιὥς γε τὸ εἰκὸς συμβῆναι ἐκ τοιαύτης ἀρχῆς ἀρξαμένῳ.

Εὐθύφρων
βουλοίμην ἄν Σώκρατεςἀλλ᾽ ὀρρωδῶ μὴ τοὐναντίον γένηταιἀτεχνῶς γάρ μοι δοκεῖ ἀφ᾽ ἑστίας ἄρχεσθαι κακουργεῖν τὴν πόλινἐπιχειρῶν ἀδικεῖν σέκαί μοι λέγετί καὶ ποιοῦντά σέ φησι διαφθείρειν τοὺς νέους;

[3a] clearing away us who corrupt the young plants, as he says; then after this, when he has turned his attention to the older men, he will bring countless most precious blessings upon the State,—at least, that is the natural outcome of the beginning he has made.

Euthyphro
I hope it may be so, Socrates; but I fear the opposite may result. For it seems to me that he begins by injuring the State at its very heart, when he undertakes to harm you. Now tell me, what does he say you do that corrupts the young?

[3β]

Σωκράτης
ἄτοπα θαυμάσιεὡς οὕτω γ᾽ ἀκοῦσαιφησὶ γάρ με ποιητὴν εἶναι θεῶνκαὶ ὡς καινοὺς ποιοῦντα θεοὺς τοὺς δ᾽ ἀρχαίους οὐ νομίζοντα ἐγράψατο τούτων αὐτῶν ἕνεκαὥς φησιν.

Εὐθύφρων
μανθάνω Σώκρατεςὅτι δὴ σὺ τὸ δαιμόνιον φῂς σαυτῷ ἑκάστοτε γίγνεσθαιὡς οὖν καινοτομοῦντός σου περὶ τὰ θεῖα γέγραπται ταύτην τὴν γραφήνκαὶ ὡς διαβαλῶν δὴ ἔρχεται εἰς τὸ δικαστήριονεἰδὼς ὅτι εὐδιάβολα τὰ τοιαῦτα πρὸς τοὺς πολλούςκαὶ ἐμοῦ γάρ τοι,

[3b]

Socrates
Absurd things, my friend, at first hearing. For he says I am a maker of gods; and because I make new gods and do not believe in the old ones, he indicted me for the sake of these old ones, as he says.

Euthyphro
I understand, Socrates; it is because you say the divine monitor keeps coming to you. So he has brought the indictment against you for making innovations in religion, and he is going into court to slander you, knowing that slanders on such subjects are readily accepted by the people. Why, they even laugh at me and say I am crazy

[3ξ] ὅταν τι λέγω ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ περὶ τῶν θείωνπρολέγων αὐτοῖς τὰ μέλλοντακαταγελῶσιν ὡς μαινομένουκαίτοι οὐδὲν ὅτι οὐκ ἀληθὲς εἴρηκα ὧν προεῖπονἀλλ᾽ ὅμως φθονοῦσιν ἡμῖν πᾶσι τοῖς τοιούτοιςἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲν αὐτῶν χρὴ φροντίζεινἀλλ᾽ ὁμόσε ἰέναι.

Σωκράτης
 φίλε Εὐθύφρωνἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν καταγελασθῆναι ἴσως οὐδὲν πρᾶγμαἈθηναίοις γάρ τοιὡς ἐμοὶ δοκεῖοὐ σφόδρα μέλει ἄν τινα δεινὸν οἴωνται εἶναιμὴ μέντοι διδασκαλικὸν τῆς αὑτοῦ σοφίαςὃν δ᾽ ἂν καὶ ἄλλους οἴωνται

[3c] when I say anything in the assembly about divine things and foretell the future to them. And yet there is not one of the things I have foretold that is not true; but they are jealous of all such men as you and I are. However, we must not be disturbed, but must come to close quarters with them.

Socrates
My dear Euthyphro, their ridicule is perhaps of no consequence. For the Athenians, I fancy, are not much concerned, if they think a man is clever, provided he does not impart his clever notions to others; but when they think he makes others to be like himself,

Εὐθύφρων
τούτου οὖν πέρι ὅπως ποτὲ πρὸς ἐμὲ ἔχουσινοὐ πάνυ ἐπιθυμῶ πειραθῆναι.

Σωκράτης
ἴσως γὰρ σὺ μὲν δοκεῖς σπάνιον σεαυτὸν παρέχειν καὶ διδάσκειν οὐκ ἐθέλειν τὴν σεαυτοῦ σοφίανἐγὼ δὲ φοβοῦμαι μὴ ὑπὸ φιλανθρωπίας δοκῶ αὐτοῖς ὅτιπερ ἔχω ἐκκεχυμένως παντὶ ἀνδρὶ λέγεινοὐ μόνον ἄνευ μισθοῦἀλλὰ καὶ προστιθεὶς ἂν ἡδέως εἴ τίς μου ἐθέλει ἀκούεινεἰ μὲν οὖν νυνδὴ ἔλεγονμέλλοιέν μου καταγελᾶν ὥσπερ

[3d] they are angry with him, either through jealousy, as you say, or for some other reason.

Euthyphro
I don’t much desire to test their sentiments toward me in this matter.

Socrates
No, for perhaps they think that you are reserved and unwilling to impart your wisdom. But I fear that because of my love of men they think that I not only pour myself out copiously to anyone and everyone without payment, but that I would even pay something myself, if anyone would listen to me. Now if, as I was saying just now, they were to laugh at me, as you say they do at you, it would not be at all unpleasant

[3ε] σὺ φῂς σαυτοῦοὐδὲν ἂν εἴη ἀηδὲς παίζοντας καὶ γελῶντας ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ διαγαγεῖνεἰ δὲ σπουδάσονταιτοῦτ᾽ ἤδη ὅπῃ ἀποβήσεται ἄδηλον πλὴν ὑμῖν τοῖς μάντεσιν.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ ἴσως οὐδὲν ἔσται Σώκρατεςπρᾶγμαἀλλὰ σύ τε κατὰ νοῦν ἀγωνιῇ τὴν δίκηνοἶμαι δὲ καὶ ἐμὲ τὴν ἐμήν.

Σωκράτης
ἔστιν δὲ δὴ σοί Εὐθύφρωντίς  δίκηφεύγεις αὐτὴν  διώκεις;

Εὐθύφρων
διώκω.

Σωκράτης
τίνα;

[3e] to pass the time in the court with jests and laughter; but if they are in earnest, then only soothsayers like you can tell how this will end.

Euthyphro
Well, Socrates, perhaps it won’t amount to much, and you will bring your case to a satisfactory ending, as I think I shall mine.

Socrates
What is your case, Euthyphro? Are you defending or prosecuting?

Euthyphro
Prosecuting.

Socrates
Whom?

[4α]

Εὐθύφρων
ὃν διώκων αὖ δοκῶ μαίνεσθαι.

Σωκράτης
τί δέπετόμενόν τινα διώκεις;

Εὐθύφρων
πολλοῦ γε δεῖ πέτεσθαιὅς γε τυγχάνει ὢν εὖ μάλα πρεσβύτης.

Σωκράτης
τίς οὗτος;

Εὐθύφρων
 ἐμὸς πατήρ.

Σωκράτης
 σός βέλτιστε;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ μὲν οὖν.

Σωκράτης
ἔστιν δὲ τί τὸ ἔγκλημα καὶ τίνος  δίκη;

Εὐθύφρων
φόνου Σώκρατες.

Σωκράτης
Ἡράκλεις που Εὐθύφρωνἀγνοεῖται ὑπὸ τῶν πολλῶν ὅπῃ ποτὲ ὀρθῶς ἔχειοὐ γὰρ οἶμαί γε τοῦ ἐπιτυχόντος

[4a]

Euthyphro
Such a man that they think I am insane because I am prosecuting1 him.

Socrates
Why? Are you prosecuting one who has wings to fly away with?

Euthyphro
No flying for him at his ripe old age.

Socrates
Who is he?

Euthyphro
My father.

Socrates
Your father, my dear man?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
But what is the charge, and what is the suit about?

Euthyphro
Murder, Socrates.

Socrates
Heracles! Surely, Euthyphro, most people do not know where the right lies; for I fancy it is not everyone who can rightly do what you are doing,

1 The Greek word has much the same meaning as the Latin “prosequor,” from which the English ‘prosecute’ is derived, ‘follow,’ ‘pursue,’ and is at the same time the technical term for ‘prosecute.’

[4β] ὀρθῶς αὐτὸ πρᾶξαι ἀλλὰ πόρρω που ἤδη σοφίας ἐλαύνοντος.

Εὐθύφρων
πόρρω μέντοι νὴ Δία Σώκρατες.

Σωκράτης
ἔστιν δὲ δὴ τῶν οἰκείων τις  τεθνεὼς ὑπὸ τοῦ σοῦ πατρός δῆλα δήοὐ γὰρ ἄν που ὑπέρ γε ἀλλοτρίου ἐπεξῇσθα φόνου αὐτῷ.

Εὐθύφρων
γελοῖον Σώκρατεςὅτι οἴει τι διαφέρειν εἴτε ἀλλότριος εἴτε οἰκεῖος  τεθνεώςἀλλ᾽ οὐ τοῦτο μόνον δεῖν φυλάττεινεἴτε ἐν δίκῃ ἔκτεινεν  κτείνας εἴτε μήκαὶ εἰ μὲν ἐν δίκῃἐᾶνεἰ δὲ μήἐπεξιέναιἐάνπερ  κτείνας συνέστιός

[4b] but only one who is already very far advanced in wisdom.

Euthyphro
Very far, indeed, Socrates, by Zeus.

Socrates
Is the one who was killed by your father a relative? But of course he was; for you would not bring a charge of murder against him on a stranger’s account.

Euthyphro
It is ridiculous, Socrates, that you think it matters whether the man who was killed was a stranger or a relative, and do not see that the only thing to consider is whether the action of the slayer was justified or not, and that if it was justified one ought to let him alone, and if not, one ought to proceed against him, even if he share one’s hearth

[4ξ] σοι καὶ ὁμοτράπεζος ἴσον γὰρ τὸ μίασμα γίγνεται ἐὰν συνῇς τῷ τοιούτῳ συνειδὼς καὶ μὴ ἀφοσιοῖς σεαυτόν τε καὶ ἐκεῖνον τῇ δίκῃ ἐπεξιώνἐπεὶ  γε ἀποθανὼν πελάτης τις ἦν ἐμόςκαὶ ὡς ἐγεωργοῦμεν ἐν τῇ Νάξῳἐθήτευεν ἐκεῖ παρ᾽ ἡμῖνπαροινήσας οὖν καὶ ὀργισθεὶς τῶν οἰκετῶν τινι τῶν ἡμετέρων ἀποσφάττει αὐτόν οὖν πατὴρ συνδήσας τοὺς πόδας καὶ τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦκαταβαλὼν εἰς τάφρον τινάπέμπει δεῦρο ἄνδρα πευσόμενον τοῦ ἐξηγητοῦ ὅτι χρείη

[4c] and eat at one’s table. For the pollution is the same if you associate knowingly with such a man and do not purify yourself and him by proceeding against him. In this case, the man who was killed was a hired workman of mine, and when we were farming at Naxos, he was working there on our land. Now he got drunk, got angry with one of our house slaves, and butchered him. So my father bound him hand and foot, threw him into a ditch, and sent a man here to Athens to ask the religious adviser what he ought

[4δ] ποιεῖνἐν δὲ τούτῳ τῷ χρόνῳ τοῦ δεδεμένου ὠλιγώρει τε καὶ ἠμέλει ὡς ἀνδροφόνου καὶ οὐδὲν ὂν πρᾶγμα εἰ καὶ ἀποθάνοιὅπερ οὖν καὶ ἔπαθενὑπὸ γὰρ λιμοῦ καὶ ῥίγους καὶ τῶν δεσμῶν ἀποθνῄσκει πρὶν τὸν ἄγγελον παρὰ τοῦ ἐξηγητοῦ ἀφικέσθαιταῦτα δὴ οὖν καὶ ἀγανακτεῖ  τε πατὴρ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι οἰκεῖοιὅτι ἐγὼ ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀνδροφόνου τῷ πατρὶ φόνου ἐπεξέρχομαι οὔτε ἀποκτείναντιὥς φασιν ἐκεῖνοιοὔτ᾽ εἰ ὅτι μάλιστα ἀπέκτεινενἀνδροφόνου γε ὄντος τοῦ ἀποθανόντοςοὐ δεῖν φροντίζειν ὑπὲρ τοῦ τοιούτουἀνόσιον

[4d] to do. In the meantime he paid no attention to the man as he lay there bound, and neglected him, thinking that he was a murderer and it did not matter if he were to die. And that is just what happened to him. For he died of hunger and cold and his bonds before the messenger came back from the adviser. Now my father and the rest of my relatives are angry with me, because for the sake of this murderer I am prosecuting my father for murder. For they say he did not kill him, and if he had killed him never so much, yet since the dead man was a murderer, I ought not to trouble myself about such a fellow,

[4ε] γὰρ εἶναι τὸ ὑὸν πατρὶ φόνου ἐπεξιέναικακῶς εἰδότες Σώκρατεςτὸ θεῖον ὡς ἔχει τοῦ ὁσίου τε πέρι καὶ τοῦ ἀνοσίου.

Σωκράτης
σὺ δὲ δὴ πρὸς Διός Εὐθύφρωνοὑτωσὶ ἀκριβῶς οἴει ἐπίστασθαι περὶ τῶν θείων ὅπῃ ἔχεικαὶ τῶν ὁσίων τε καὶ ἀνοσίωνὥστε τούτων οὕτω πραχθέντων ὡς σὺ λέγειςοὐ φοβῇ δικαζόμενος τῷ πατρὶ ὅπως μὴ αὖ σὺ ἀνόσιον πρᾶγμα τυγχάνῃς πράττων;γ

Εὐθύφρων
οὐδὲν γὰρ ἄν μου ὄφελος εἴη Σώκρατεςοὐδέ

[4e] because it is unholy for a son to prosecute his father for murder. Which shows how little they know what the divine law is in regard to holiness and unholiness.

Socrates
But, in the name of Zeus, Euthyphro, do you think your knowledge about divine laws and holiness and unholiness is so exact that, when the facts are as you say, you are not afraid of doing something unholy yourself in prosecuting your father for murder?

Euthyphro
I should be of no use, Socrates,

[5α] τῳ ἂν διαφέροι Εὐθύφρων τῶν πολλῶν ἀνθρώπωνεἰ μὴ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάντα ἀκριβῶς εἰδείην.

Σωκράτης
ἆρ᾽ οὖν μοι θαυμάσιε Εὐθύφρωνκράτιστόν ἐστι μαθητῇ σῷ γενέσθαικαὶ πρὸ τῆς γραφῆς τῆς πρὸς Μέλητον αὐτὰ ταῦτα προκαλεῖσθαι αὐτόνλέγοντα ὅτι ἔγωγε καὶ ἐν τῷ ἔμπροσθεν χρόνῳ τὰ θεῖα περὶ πολλοῦ ἐποιούμην εἰδέναικαὶ νῦν ἐπειδή με ἐκεῖνος αὐτοσχεδιάζοντά φησι καὶ καινοτομοῦντα περὶ τῶν θείων ἐξαμαρτάνεινμαθητὴς δὴ γέγονα σός — ‘καὶ εἰ μέν Μέλητε,’ φαίην ἄν, ‘Εὐθύφρονα ὁμολογεῖς ’

[5a] and Euthyphro would be in no way different from other men, if I did not have exact knowledge about all such things.

Socrates
Then the best thing for me, my admirable Euthyphro, is to become your pupil and, before the suit with Meletus comes on, to challenge him and say that I always thought it very important before to know about divine matters and that now, since he says I am doing wrong by acting carelessly and making innovations in matters of religion, I have become your pupil. And “Meletus,” I should say,

‘ [5β] σοφὸν εἶναι τὰ τοιαῦτακαὶ ὀρθῶς νομίζειν καὶ ἐμὲ ἡγοῦ καὶ μὴ δικάζουεἰ δὲ μήἐκείνῳ τῷ διδασκάλῳ λάχε δίκην πρότερον  ἐμοίὡς τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους διαφθείροντι ἐμέ τε καὶ τὸν αὑτοῦ πατέραἐμὲ μὲν διδάσκοντιἐκεῖνον δὲ νουθετοῦντί τε καὶ κολάζοντι’ —καὶ ἂν μή μοι πείθηται μηδὲ ἀφίῃ τῆς δίκης  ἀντ᾽ ἐμοῦ γράφηται σέαὐτὰ ταῦτα λέγειν ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ  προυκαλούμην αὐτόν;

Εὐθύφρων
ναὶ μὰ Δία Σώκρατεςεἰ ἄρα ἐμὲ ἐπιχειρήσειε

[5b] “if you acknowledge that Euthyphro is wise in such matters, then believe that I also hold correct opinions, and do not bring me to trial; and if you do not acknowledge that, then bring a suit against him, my teacher, rather than against me, and charge him with corrupting the old, namely, his father and me, which he does by teaching me and by correcting and punishing his father.” And if he does not do as I ask and does not release me from the indictment or bring it against you in my stead, I could say in the court the same things I said in my challenge to him, could I not?

Euthyphro
By Zeus, Socrates, if he should undertake to indict me,

[5ξ] γράφεσθαιεὕροιμ᾽ ἄνὡς οἶμαιὅπῃ σαθρός ἐστινκαὶ πολὺ ἂν ἡμῖν πρότερον περὶ ἐκείνου λόγος ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ  περὶ ἐμοῦ.

Σωκράτης
καὶ ἐγώ τοι φίλε ἑταῖρεταῦτα γιγνώσκων μαθητὴς ἐπιθυμῶ γενέσθαι σόςεἰδὼς ὅτι καὶ ἄλλος πού τις καὶ  Μέλητος οὗτος σὲ μὲν οὐδὲ δοκεῖ ὁρᾶνἐμὲ δὲ οὕτως ὀξέως ἀτεχνῶς καὶ ῥᾳδίως κατεῖδεν ὥστε ἀσεβείας ἐγράψατονῦν οὖν πρὸς Διὸς λέγε μοι  νυνδὴ σαφῶς εἰδέναι διισχυρίζουποῖόν τι τὸ εὐσεβὲς φῂς εἶναι καὶ τὸ ἀσεβὲς

[5c] I fancy I should find his weak spot, and it would be much more a question about him in court than about me.

Socrates
And I, my dear friend, perceiving this, wish to become your pupil; for I know that neither this fellow Meletus, nor anyone else, seems to notice you at all, but he has seen through me so sharply and so easily that he has indicted me for impiety. Now in the name of Zeus, tell me what you just now asserted that you knew so well. What do you say is the nature of piety and impiety, both

[5δ] καὶ περὶ φόνου καὶ περὶ τῶν ἄλλων οὐ ταὐτόν ἐστιν ἐν πάσῃ πράξει τὸ ὅσιον αὐτὸ αὑτῷκαὶ τὸ ἀνόσιον αὖ τοῦ μὲν ὁσίου παντὸς ἐναντίοναὐτὸ δὲ αὑτῷ ὅμοιον καὶ ἔχον μίαν τινὰ ἰδέαν κατὰ τὴν ἀνοσιότητα πᾶν ὅτιπερ ἂν μέλλῃ ἀνόσιον εἶναι;

Εὐθύφρων
πάντως δήπου Σώκρατες.

Σωκράτης
λέγε δήτί φῂς εἶναι τὸ ὅσιον καὶ τί τὸ ἀνόσιον;

Εὐθύφρων
λέγω τοίνυν ὅτι τὸ μὲν ὅσιόν ἐστιν ὅπερ ἐγὼ νῦν ποιῶτῷ ἀδικοῦντι  περὶ φόνους  περὶ ἱερῶν κλοπὰς  τι ἄλλο τῶν τοιούτων ἐξαμαρτάνοντι ἐπεξιέναιἐάντε πατὴρ

[5d] in relation to murder and to other things? Is not holiness always the same with itself in every action and, on the other hand, is not unholiness the opposite of all holiness, always the same with itself and whatever is to be unholy possessing some one characteristic quality?

Euthyphro
Certainly, Socrates.

Socrates
Tell me then, what do you say holiness is, and what unholiness?

Euthyphro
Well then, I say that holiness is doing what I am doing now, prosecuting the wrongdoer who commits murder or steals from the temples or does any such thing, whether he be your father,

[5ε] ὢν τυγχάνῃ ἐάντε μήτηρ ἐάντε ἄλλος ὁστισοῦντὸ δὲ μὴ ἐπεξιέναι ἀνόσιονἐπεί Σώκρατεςθέασαι ὡς μέγα σοι ἐρῶ τεκμήριον τοῦ νόμου ὅτι οὕτως ἔχει καὶ ἄλλοις ἤδη εἶπονὅτι ταῦτα ὀρθῶς ἂν εἴη οὕτω γιγνόμεναμὴ ἐπιτρέπειν τῷ ἀσεβοῦντι μηδ᾽ ἂν ὁστισοῦν τυγχάνῃ ὤναὐτοὶ γὰρ οἱ ἄνθρωποι τυγχάνουσι νομίζοντες τὸν Δία τῶν θεῶν ἄριστον καὶ δικαιότατον,

[5e] or your mother or anyone else, and not prosecuting him is unholy. And, Socrates, see what a sure proof I offer you,—a proof I have already given to others,—that this is established and right and that we ought not to let him who acts impiously go unpunished, no matter who he may be. Men believe

[6α] καὶ τοῦτον ὁμολογοῦσι τὸν αὑτοῦ πατέρα δῆσαι ὅτι τοὺς ὑεῖς κατέπινεν οὐκ ἐν δίκῃκἀκεῖνόν γε αὖ τὸν αὑτοῦ πατέρα ἐκτεμεῖν δι᾽ ἕτερα τοιαῦταἐμοὶ δὲ χαλεπαίνουσιν ὅτι τῷ πατρὶ ἐπεξέρχομαι ἀδικοῦντικαὶ οὕτως αὐτοὶ αὑτοῖς τὰ ἐναντία λέγουσι περί τε τῶν θεῶν καὶ περὶ ἐμοῦ.

Σωκράτης
ἆρά γε Εὐθύφρωντοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν οὗ οὕνεκα τὴν γραφὴν φεύγωὅτι τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐπειδάν τις περὶ τῶν θεῶν λέγῃδυσχερῶς πως ἀποδέχομαιδιὸ δήὡς ἔοικεφήσει τίς με ἐξαμαρτάνειννῦν οὖν εἰ καὶ σοὶ ταῦτα συνδοκεῖ τῷ

[6a] that Zeus is the best and most just of the gods, and they acknowledge that he put his father in bonds because he wickedly devoured his children, and he in turn had mutilated his father for similar reasons; but they are incensed against me because I proceed against my father when he has done wrong, and so they are inconsistent in what they say about the gods and about me.

Socrates
Is not this, Euthyphro, the reason why I am being prosecuted, because when people tell such stories about the gods I find it hard to accept them? And therefore, probably, people will say I am wrong. Now if you, who know so much about such things,

[6β] εὖ εἰδότι περὶ τῶν τοιούτωνἀνάγκη δήὡς ἔοικεκαὶ ἡμῖν συγχωρεῖντί γὰρ καὶ φήσομενοἵ γε καὶ αὐτοὶ ὁμολογοῦμεν περὶ αὐτῶν μηδὲν εἰδέναιἀλλά μοι εἰπὲ πρὸς Φιλίουσὺ ὡς ἀληθῶς ἡγῇ ταῦτα οὕτως γεγονέναι;

Εὐθύφρων
καὶ ἔτι γε τούτων θαυμασιώτερα Σώκρατες οἱ πολλοὶ οὐκ ἴσασιν.

Σωκράτης
καὶ πόλεμον ἆρα ἡγῇ σὺ εἶναι τῷ ὄντι ἐν τοῖς θεοῖς πρὸς ἀλλήλουςκαὶ ἔχθρας γε δεινὰς καὶ μάχας καὶ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα πολλάοἷα λέγεταί τε ὑπὸ τῶν ποιητῶνκαὶ ὑπὸ τῶν

[6b] accept these tales, I suppose I too must give way. For what am I to say, who confess frankly that I know nothing about them? But tell me, in the name of Zeus, the god of friendship, do you really believe these things happened?

Euthyphro
Yes, and still more wonderful things than these, Socrates, which most people do not know.

Socrates
And so you believe that there was really war between the gods, and fearful enmities and battles and other things of the sort, such as are told of by the poets and represented in varied designs

[6ξ] ἀγαθῶν γραφέων τά τε ἄλλα ἱερὰ ἡμῖν καταπεποίκιλταικαὶ δὴ καὶ τοῖς μεγάλοις Παναθηναίοις  πέπλος μεστὸς τῶν τοιούτων ποικιλμάτων ἀνάγεται εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολινταῦτα ἀληθῆ φῶμεν εἶναι Εὐθύφρων;

Εὐθύφρων
μὴ μόνον γε Σώκρατεςἀλλ᾽ ὅπερ ἄρτι εἶπονκαὶ ἄλλα σοι ἐγὼ πολλάἐάνπερ βούλῃπερὶ τῶν θείων διηγήσομαι σὺ ἀκούων εὖ οἶδ᾽ ὅτι ἐκπλαγήσῃ.

Σωκράτης
οὐκ ἂν θαυμάζοιμιἀλλὰ ταῦτα μέν μοι εἰς αὖθις ἐπὶ σχολῆς διηγήσῃνυνὶ δὲ ὅπερ ἄρτι σε ἠρόμην πειρῶ

[6c] by the great artists in our sacred places and especially on the robe which is carried up to the Acropolis at the great Panathenaea? for this is covered with such representations. Shall we agree that these things are true, Euthyphro?

Euthyphro
Not only these things, Socrates; but, as I said just now, I will, if you like, tell you many other things about the gods, which I am sure will amaze you when you hear them.

Socrates
I dare say. But you can tell me those things at your leisure some other time. At present try to tell more clearly what I asked you just now.

[6δ] σαφέστερον εἰπεῖνοὐ γάρ με ἑταῖρετὸ πρότερον ἱκανῶς ἐδίδαξας ἐρωτήσαντα τὸ ὅσιον ὅτι ποτ᾽ εἴηἀλλά μοι εἶπες ὅτι τοῦτο τυγχάνει ὅσιον ὂν  σὺ νῦν ποιεῖςφόνου ἐπεξιὼν τῷ πατρί.

Εὐθύφρων
καὶ ἀληθῆ γε ἔλεγον Σώκρατες.

Σωκράτης
ἴσωςἀλλὰ γάρ Εὐθύφρωνκαὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ φῂς εἶναι ὅσια.

Εὐθύφρων
καὶ γὰρ ἔστιν.

Σωκράτης
μέμνησαι οὖν ὅτι οὐ τοῦτό σοι διεκελευόμηνἕν τι  δύο με διδάξαι τῶν πολλῶν ὁσίωνἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνο αὐτὸ τὸ εἶδος  πάντα τὰ ὅσια ὅσιά ἐστινἔφησθα γάρ που μιᾷ ἰδέᾳ

[6d] For, my friend, you did not give me sufficient information before, when I asked what holiness was, but you told me that this was holy which you are now doing, prosecuting your father for murder.

Euthyphro
Well, what I said was true, Socrates.

Socrates
Perhaps. But, Euthyphro, you say that many other things are holy, do you not?

Euthyphro
Why, so they are.

Socrates
Now call to mind that this is not what I asked you, to tell me one or two of the many holy acts, but to tell the essential aspect, by which all holy acts are holy; for you said

[6ε] τά τε ἀνόσια ἀνόσια εἶναι καὶ τὰ ὅσια ὅσια οὐ μνημονεύεις;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
ταύτην τοίνυν με αὐτὴν δίδαξον τὴν ἰδέαν τίς ποτέ ἐστινἵνα εἰς ἐκείνην ἀποβλέπων καὶ χρώμενος αὐτῇ παραδείγματι μὲν ἂν τοιοῦτον  ὧν ἂν  σὺ  ἄλλος τις πράττῃ φῶ ὅσιον εἶναι δ᾽ ἂν μὴ τοιοῦτονμὴ φῶ.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ εἰ οὕτω βούλει Σώκρατεςκαὶ οὕτω σοι φράσω.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλὰ μὴν βούλομαί γε.

Εὐθύφρων
ἔστι τοίνυν τὸ μὲν τοῖς θεοῖς προσφιλὲς ὅσιοντὸ

[6e] that all unholy acts were unholy and all holy ones holy by one aspect. Or don’t you remember?

Euthyphro
I remember.

Socrates
Tell me then what this aspect is, that I may keep my eye fixed upon it and employ it as a model and, if anything you or anyone else does agrees with it, may say that the act is holy, and if not, that it is unholy.

Euthyphro
If you wish me to explain in that way, I will do so.

Socrates
I do wish it.

Euthyphro
Well then, what is dear to the gods is holy,

[7α] δὲ μὴ προσφιλὲς ἀνόσιον.

Σωκράτης
παγκάλως Εὐθύφρωνκαὶ ὡς ἐγὼ ἐζήτουν ἀποκρίνασθαί σεοὕτω νῦν ἀπεκρίνωεἰ μέντοι ἀληθῶςτοῦτο οὔπω οἶδαἀλλὰ σὺ δῆλον ὅτι ἐπεκδιδάξεις ὡς ἔστιν ἀληθῆ  λέγεις.

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ μὲν οὖν.

Σωκράτης
φέρε δήἐπισκεψώμεθα τί λέγομεντὸ μὲν θεοφιλές τε καὶ θεοφιλὴς ἄνθρωπος ὅσιοςτὸ δὲ θεομισὲς καὶ  θεομισὴς ἀνόσιοςοὐ ταὐτὸν δ᾽ ἐστίνἀλλὰ τὸ ἐναντιώτατοντὸ ὅσιον τῷ ἀνοσίῳοὐχ οὕτως;

Εὐθύφρων
οὕτω μὲν οὖν.

Σωκράτης
καὶ εὖ γε φαίνεται εἰρῆσθαι;

[7a] and what is not dear to them is unholy.

Socrates
Excellent, Euthyphro, now you have answered as I asked you to answer. However, whether it is true, I am not yet sure; but you will, of course, show that what you say is true.

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
Come then, let us examine our words. The thing and the person that are dear to the gods are holy, and the thing and the person that are hateful to the gods are unholy; and the two are not the same, but the holy and the unholy are the exact opposites of each other. Is not this what we have said?

Euthyphro
Yes, just this.

Socrates
And it seems to be correct?

[7β]

Εὐθύφρων
δοκῶ Σώκρατεςεἴρηται γάρ.γ

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν καὶ ὅτι στασιάζουσιν οἱ θεοί Εὐθύφρωνκαὶ διαφέρονται ἀλλήλοις καὶ ἔχθρα ἐστὶν ἐν αὐτοῖς πρὸς ἀλλήλουςκαὶ τοῦτο εἴρηται;

Εὐθύφρων
εἴρηται γάρ.

Σωκράτης
ἔχθραν δὲ καὶ ὀργάς ἄριστε περὶ τίνων διαφορὰ ποιεῖὧδε δὲ σκοπῶμενἆρ᾽ ἂν εἰ διαφεροίμεθα ἐγώ τε καὶ σὺ περὶ ἀριθμοῦ ὁπότερα πλείω περὶ τούτων διαφορὰ ἐχθροὺς ἂν ἡμᾶς ποιοῖ καὶ ὀργίζεσθαι ἀλλήλοις ἐπὶ λογισμὸν ἐλθόντες περί γε τῶν τοιούτων ταχὺ ἂν

[7b]

Euthyphro
I think so, Socrates.

Socrates
Well then, have we said this also, that the gods, Euthyphro, quarrel and disagree with each other, and that there is enmity between them?

Euthyphro
Yes, we have said that.

Socrates
But what things is the disagreement about, which causes enmity and anger? Let us look at it in this way. If you and I were to disagree about number, for instance, which of two numbers were the greater, would the disagreement about these matters make us enemies and make us angry with each other, or should we not quickly settle it by resorting

[7ξ] ἀπαλλαγεῖμεν;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν καὶ περὶ τοῦ μείζονος καὶ ἐλάττονος εἰ διαφεροίμεθαἐπὶ τὸ μετρεῖν ἐλθόντες ταχὺ παυσαίμεθ᾽ ἂν τῆς διαφορᾶς;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔστι ταῦτα.

Σωκράτης
καὶ ἐπί γε τὸ ἱστάναι ἐλθόντεςὡς ἐγᾦμαιπερὶ τοῦ βαρυτέρου τε καὶ κουφοτέρου διακριθεῖμεν ἄν;

Εὐθύφρων
πῶς γὰρ οὔ;

Σωκράτης
περὶ τίνος δὲ δὴ διενεχθέντες καὶ ἐπὶ τίνα κρίσιν οὐ δυνάμενοι ἀφικέσθαι ἐχθροί γε ἂν ἀλλήλοις εἶμεν καὶ ὀργιζοίμεθαἴσως οὐ πρόχειρόν σοί ἐστινἀλλ᾽ ἐμοῦ λέγοντος

[7c] to arithmetic?

Euthyphro
Of course we should.

Socrates
Then, too, if we were to disagree about the relative size of things, we should quickly put an end to the disagreement by measuring?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
And we should, I suppose, come to terms about relative weights by weighing?

Euthyphro
Of course.

Socrates
But about what would a disagreement be, which we could not settle and which would cause us to be enemies and be angry with each other? Perhaps you cannot give an answer offhand;

[7δ] σκόπει εἰ τάδε ἐστὶ τό τε δίκαιον καὶ τὸ ἄδικον καὶ καλὸν καὶ αἰσχρὸν καὶ ἀγαθὸν καὶ κακόνἆρα οὐ ταῦτά ἐστιν περὶ ὧν διενεχθέντες καὶ οὐ δυνάμενοι ἐπὶ ἱκανὴν κρίσιν αὐτῶν ἐλθεῖν ἐχθροὶ ἀλλήλοις γιγνόμεθαὅταν γιγνώμεθακαὶ ἐγὼ καὶ σὺ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι ἄνθρωποι πάντες;

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ ἔστιν αὕτη  διαφορά Σώκρατεςκαὶ περὶ τούτων.

Σωκράτης
τί δὲ οἱ θεοί Εὐθύφρωνοὐκ εἴπερ τι διαφέρονταιδι᾽ αὐτὰ ταῦτα διαφέροιντ᾽ ἄν;

Εὐθύφρων
πολλὴ ἀνάγκη.

[7d] but let me suggest it. Is it not about right and wrong, and noble and disgraceful, and good and bad? Are not these the questions about which you and I and other people become enemies, when we do become enemies, because we differ about them and cannot reach any satisfactory agreement?

Euthyphro
Yes, Socrates, these are the questions about which we should become enemies.

Socrates
And how about the gods,

Euthyphro
If they disagree, would they not disagree about these questions?

Euthyphro
Necessarily.

[7ε]

Σωκράτης
καὶ τῶν θεῶν ἄρα γενναῖε Εὐθύφρωνἄλλοι ἄλλα δίκαια ἡγοῦνται κατὰ τὸν σὸν λόγονκαὶ καλὰ καὶ αἰσχρὰ καὶ ἀγαθὰ καὶ κακάοὐ γὰρ ἄν που ἐστασίαζον ἀλλήλοις εἰ μὴ περὶ τούτων διεφέροντο γάρ;γ

Εὐθύφρων
ὀρθῶς λέγεις.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν ἅπερ καλὰ ἡγοῦνται ἕκαστοι καὶ ἀγαθὰ καὶ δίκαιαταῦτα καὶ φιλοῦσιντὰ δὲ ἐναντία τούτων μισοῦσιν;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
ταὐτὰ δέ γεὡς σὺ φῄςοἱ μὲν δίκαια ἡγοῦνται,

[7e]

Socrates
Then, my noble Euthyphro, according to what you say, some of the gods too think some things are right or wrong and noble or disgraceful, and good or bad, and others disagree; for they would not quarrel with each other if they did not disagree about these matters. Is that the case?

Euthyphro
You are right.

Socrates
Then the gods in each group love the things which they consider good and right and hate the opposites of these things?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
But you say that the same things are considered right by some of them and wrong by others; and it is because they disagree about these things

[8α] οἱ δὲ ἄδικαπερὶ  καὶ ἀμφισβητοῦντες στασιάζουσί τε καὶ πολεμοῦσιν ἀλλήλοιςἆρα οὐχ οὕτω;

Εὐθύφρων
οὕτω.

Σωκράτης
ταὔτ᾽ ἄραὡς ἔοικενμισεῖταί τε ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν καὶ φιλεῖταικαὶ θεομισῆ τε καὶ θεοφιλῆ ταὔτ᾽ ἂν εἴη.

Εὐθύφρων
ἔοικεν.

Σωκράτης
καὶ ὅσια ἄρα καὶ ἀνόσια τὰ αὐτὰ ἂν εἴη Εὐθύφρωντούτῳ τῷ λόγῳ.

Εὐθύφρων
κινδυνεύει.

Σωκράτης
οὐκ ἄρα  ἠρόμην ἀπεκρίνω θαυμάσιεοὐ γὰρ τοῦτό γε ἠρώτων τυγχάνει ταὐτὸν ὂν ὅσιόν τε καὶ ἀνόσιον δ᾽ ἂν θεοφιλὲς  καὶ θεομισές ἐστινὡς ἔοικεν.

[8a] that they quarrel and wage war with each other. Is not this what you said?

Euthyphro
It is.

Socrates
Then, as it seems, the same things are hated and loved by the gods, and the same things would be dear and hateful to the gods.

Euthyphro
So it seems.

Socrates
And then the same things would be both holy and unholy, Euthyphro, according to this statement.

Euthyphro
I suppose so.

Socrates
Then you did not answer my question, my friend. For I did not ask you what is at once holy and unholy; but, judging from your reply, what is dear to the gods is also hateful to the gods. And so, Euthyphro,

[8β] ὥστε Εὐθύφρων σὺ νῦν ποιεῖς τὸν πατέρα κολάζωνοὐδὲν θαυμαστὸν εἰ τοῦτο δρῶν τῷ μὲν Διὶ προσφιλὲς ποιεῖςτῷ δὲ Κρόνῳ καὶ τῷ Οὐρανῷ ἐχθρόνκαὶ τῷ μὲν Ἡφαίστῳ φίλοντῇ δὲ Ἥρᾳ ἐχθρόνκαὶ εἴ τις ἄλλος τῶν θεῶν ἕτερος ἑτέρῳ διαφέρεται περὶ αὐτοῦκαὶ ἐκείνοις κατὰ τὰ αὐτά.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ οἶμαι Σώκρατεςπερί γε τούτου τῶν θεῶν οὐδένα ἕτερον ἑτέρῳ διαφέρεσθαιὡς οὐ δεῖ δίκην διδόναι ἐκεῖνον ὃς ἂν ἀδίκως τινὰ ἀποκτείνῃ.

Σωκράτης
τί δέἀνθρώπων Εὐθύφρωνἤδη τινὸς ἤκουσας

[8b] it would not be surprising if, in punishing your father as you are doing, you were performing an act that is pleasing to Zeus, but hateful to Cronus and Uranus, and pleasing to Hephaestus, but hateful to Hera, and so forth in respect to the other gods, if any disagree with any other about it.

Euthyphro
But I think, Socrates, that none of the gods disagrees with any other about this, or holds that he who kills anyone wrongfully ought not to pay the penalty.

Socrates
Well, Euthyphro, to return to men, did you ever hear anybody arguing that he who had killed anyone wrongfully,

[8ξ] ἀμφισβητοῦντος ὡς τὸν ἀδίκως ἀποκτείναντα  ἄλλο ἀδίκως ποιοῦντα ὁτιοῦν οὐ δεῖ δίκην διδόναι;

Εὐθύφρων
οὐδὲν μὲν οὖν παύονται ταῦτα ἀμφισβητοῦντες καὶ ἄλλοθι καὶ ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοιςἀδικοῦντες γὰρ πάμπολλαπάντα ποιοῦσι καὶ λέγουσι φεύγοντες τὴν δίκην.

Σωκράτης
 καὶ ὁμολογοῦσιν Εὐθύφρωνἀδικεῖνκαὶ ὁμολογοῦντες ὅμως οὐ δεῖν φασὶ σφᾶς διδόναι δίκην;

Εὐθύφρων
οὐδαμῶς τοῦτό γε.

Σωκράτης
οὐκ ἄρα πᾶν γε ποιοῦσι καὶ λέγουσιτοῦτο γὰρ οἶμαι οὐ τολμῶσι λέγειν οὐδ᾽ ἀμφισβητεῖνὡς οὐχὶ εἴπερ

[8c] or had done anything else whatever wrongfully, ought not to pay the penalty?

Euthyphro
Why, they are always arguing these points, especially in the law courts. For they do very many wrong things; and then there is nothing they will not do or say, in defending themselves, to avoid the penalty.

Socrates
Yes, but do they acknowledge, Euthyphro, that they have done wrong and, although they acknowledge it, nevertheless say that they ought not to pay the penalty?

Euthyphro
Oh, no, they don’t do that.

Socrates
Then there is something they do not do and say. For they do not, I fancy, dare to say and argue that,

[8δ] ἀδικοῦσί γε δοτέον δίκηνἀλλ᾽ οἶμαι οὔ φασιν ἀδικεῖν γάρ;

Εὐθύφρων
ἀληθῆ λέγεις.

Σωκράτης
οὐκ ἄρα ἐκεῖνό γε ἀμφισβητοῦσινὡς οὐ τὸν ἀδικοῦντα δεῖ διδόναι δίκηνἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνο ἴσως ἀμφισβητοῦσιντὸ τίς ἐστιν  ἀδικῶν καὶ τί δρῶν καὶ πότε.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀληθῆ λέγεις.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν αὐτά γε ταῦτα καὶ οἱ θεοὶ πεπόνθασινεἴπερ στασιάζουσι περὶ τῶν δικαίων καὶ ἀδίκων ὡς  σὸς λόγοςκαὶ οἱ μέν φασιν ἀλλήλους ἀδικεῖνοἱ δὲ οὔ φασινἐπεὶ ἐκεῖνό γε δήπου θαυμάσιεοὐδεὶς οὔτε θεῶν οὔτε

[8d] if they have really done wrong, they ought not to pay the penalty; but, I think, they say they have not done wrong; do they not?

Euthyphro
You are right.

Socrates
Then they do not argue this point, that the wrongdoer must not pay the penalty; but perhaps they argue about this, who is a wrongdoer, and what he did, and when.

Euthyphro
That is true.

Socrates
Then is not the same thing true of the gods, if they quarrel about right and wrong, as you say, and some say others have done wrong, and some say they have not? For surely, my friend, no one, either of gods or men,

[8ε] ἀνθρώπων τολμᾷ λέγεινὡς οὐ τῷ γε ἀδικοῦντι δοτέον δίκην.

Εὐθύφρων
ναίτοῦτο μὲν ἀληθὲς λέγεις Σώκρατεςτό γε κεφάλαιον.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλ᾽ ἕκαστόν γε οἶμαι Εὐθύφρωντῶν πραχθέντων ἀμφισβητοῦσιν οἱ ἀμφισβητοῦντεςκαὶ ἄνθρωποι καὶ θεοίεἴπερ ἀμφισβητοῦσιν θεοίπράξεώς τινος πέρι διαφερόμενοι οἱ μὲν δικαίως φασὶν αὐτὴν πεπρᾶχθαιοἱ δὲ ἀδίκωςἆρ᾽ οὐχ οὕτω;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

[8e] has the face to say that he who does wrong ought not to pay the penalty.

Euthyphro
Yes, you are right about this, Socrates, in the main.

Socrates
But I think, Euthyphro, those who dispute, both men and gods, if the gods do dispute, dispute about each separate act. When they differ with one another about any act, some say it was right and others that it was wrong. Is it not so?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
Come now, my dear Euthyphro,

[9α]

Σωκράτης
ἴθι νυν φίλε Εὐθύφρωνδίδαξον καὶ ἐμέἵνα σοφώτερος γένωμαιτί σοι τεκμήριόν ἐστιν ὡς πάντες θεοὶ ἡγοῦνται ἐκεῖνον ἀδίκως τεθνάναιὃς ἂν θητεύων ἀνδροφόνος γενόμενοςσυνδεθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ δεσπότου τοῦ ἀποθανόντοςφθάσῃ τελευτήσας διὰ τὰ δεσμὰ πρὶν τὸν συνδήσαντα παρὰ τῶν ἐξηγητῶν περὶ αὐτοῦ πυθέσθαι τί χρὴ ποιεῖνκαὶ ὑπὲρ τοῦ τοιούτου δὴ ὀρθῶς ἔχει ἐπεξιέναι καὶ ἐπισκήπτεσθαι φόνου τὸν ὑὸν τῷ πατρίἴθιπερὶ τούτων πειρῶ τί μοι

[9a] inform me, that I may be made wiser, what proof you have that all the gods think that the man lost his life wrongfully, who, when he was a servant, committed murder, was bound by the master of the man he killed, and died as a result of his bonds before the master who had bound him found out from the advisers what he ought to do with him, and that it is right on account of such a man for a son to proceed against his father and accuse him of murder. Come, try to show me clearly about this, that

[9β] σαφὲς ἐνδείξασθαι ὡς παντὸς μᾶλλον πάντες θεοὶ ἡγοῦνται ὀρθῶς ἔχειν ταύτην τὴν πρᾶξινκἄν μοι ἱκανῶς ἐνδείξῃἐγκωμιάζων σε ἐπὶ σοφίᾳ οὐδέποτε παύσομαι.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ ἴσως οὐκ ὀλίγον ἔργον ἐστίν Σώκρατεςἐπεὶ πάνυ γε σαφῶς ἔχοιμι ἂν ἐπιδεῖξαί σοι.

Σωκράτης
μανθάνωὅτι σοι δοκῶ τῶν δικαστῶν δυσμαθέστερος εἶναιἐπεὶ ἐκείνοις γε ἐνδείξῃ δῆλον ὅτι ὡς ἄδικά τέ ἐστιν καὶ οἱ θεοὶ ἅπαντες τὰ τοιαῦτα μισοῦσιν.

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε σαφῶς Σώκρατεςἐάνπερ ἀκούωσί γέ μου λέγοντος.

[9b] the gods surely believe that this conduct is right; and if you show it to my satisfaction, I will glorify your wisdom as long as I live.

Euthyphro
But perhaps this is no small task, Socrates; though I could show you quite clearly.

Socrates
I understand; it is because you think I am slower to understand than the judges; since it is plain that you will show them that such acts are wrong and that all the gods hate them.

Euthyphro
Quite clearly, Socrates; that is, if they listen to me.

Socrates
They will listen, if they find that you are a good speaker.

[9ξ]

Σωκράτης
ἀλλ᾽ ἀκούσονταιἐάνπερ εὖ δοκῇς λέγειντόδε δέ σου ἐνενόησα ἅμα λέγοντος καὶ πρὸς ἐμαυτὸν σκοπῶ: ‘εἰ ὅτι μάλιστά με Εὐθύφρων διδάξειεν ὡς οἱ θεοὶ ἅπαντες τὸν τοιοῦτον θάνατον ἡγοῦνται ἄδικον εἶναιτί μᾶλλον ἐγὼ μεμάθηκα παρ᾽ Εὐθύφρονος τί ποτ᾽ ἐστὶν τὸ ὅσιόν τε καὶ τὸ ἀνόσιονθεομισὲς μὲν γὰρ τοῦτο τὸ ἔργονὡς ἔοικενεἴη ἄνἀλλὰ γὰρ οὐ τούτῳ ἐφάνη ἄρτι ὡρισμένα τὸ ὅσιον καὶ μήτὸ γὰρ θεομισὲς ὂν καὶ θεοφιλὲς ἐφάνη.’ ὥστε τούτου μὲν ἀφίημί σε Εὐθύφρωνεἰ βούλειπάντες αὐτὸ

[9c] But this occurred to me while you were talking, and I said to myself: “If Euthyphro should prove to me no matter how clearly that all the gods think such a death is wrongful, what have I learned from Euthyphro about the question, what is holiness and what is unholiness? For this act would, as it seems, be hateful to the gods; but we saw just now that holiness and its opposite are not defined in this way; for we saw that what is hateful to the gods is also dear to them; and so I let you off any discussion of this point, Euthyphro. If you like, all the gods

[9δ] ἡγείσθων θεοὶ ἄδικον καὶ πάντες μισούντωνἀλλ᾽ ἆρα τοῦτο  νῦν ἐπανορθούμεθα ἐν τῷ λόγῳὡς  μὲν ἂν πάντες οἱ θεοὶ μισῶσιν ἀνόσιόν ἐστιν δ᾽ ἂν φιλῶσινὅσιον δ᾽ ἂν οἱ μὲν φιλῶσιν οἱ δὲ μισῶσινοὐδέτερα  ἀμφότεραἆρ᾽ οὕτω βούλει ἡμῖν ὡρίσθαι νῦν περὶ τοῦ ὁσίου καὶ τοῦ ἀνοσίου;

Εὐθύφρων
τί γὰρ κωλύει Σώκρατες;γ

Σωκράτης
οὐδὲν ἐμέ γε Εὐθύφρωνἀλλὰ σὺ δὴ τὸ σὸν σκόπειεἰ τοῦτο ὑποθέμενος οὕτω ῥᾷστά με διδάξεις  ὑπέσχου.

[9d] may think it wrong and may hate it. But shall we now emend our definition and say that whatever all the gods hate is unholy and whatever they all love is holy, and what some love and others hate is neither or both? Do you wish this now to be our definition of holiness and unholiness?

Euthyphro
What is to hinder, Socrates?

Socrates
Nothing, so far as I am concerned, Euthyphro, but consider your own position, whether by adopting this definition you will most easily teach me what you promised.

[9ε]

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ ἔγωγε φαίην ἂν τοῦτο εἶναι τὸ ὅσιον  ἂν πάντες οἱ θεοὶ φιλῶσινκαὶ τὸ ἐναντίον ἂν πάντες θεοὶ μισῶσινἀνόσιον.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν ἐπισκοπῶμεν αὖ τοῦτο Εὐθύφρωνεἰ καλῶς λέγεται ἐῶμεν καὶ οὕτω ἡμῶν τε αὐτῶν ἀποδεχώμεθα καὶ τῶν ἄλλωνἐὰν μόνον φῇ τίς τι ἔχειν οὕτω συγχωροῦντες ἔχειν σκεπτέον τί λέγει  λέγων;

Εὐθύφρων
σκεπτέονοἶμαι μέντοι ἔγωγε τοῦτο νυνὶ καλῶς λέγεσθαι.

[9e]

Euthyphro
Well, I should say that what all the gods love is holy and, on the other hand, what they all hate is unholy.

Socrates
Then shall we examine this again, Euthyphro, to see if it is correct, or shall we let it go and accept our own statement, and those of others, agreeing that it is so, if anyone merely says that it is? Or ought we to inquire into the correctness of the statement?

Euthyphro
We ought to inquire. However, I think this is now correct.

Socrates
We shall soon know more about this, my friend.

[10α]

Σωκράτης
τάχ᾽ὠγαθέβέλτιον εἰσόμεθαἐννόησον γὰρ τὸ τοιόνδεἆρα τὸ ὅσιον ὅτι ὅσιόν ἐστιν φιλεῖται ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν ὅτι φιλεῖται ὅσιόν ἐστιν;γ

Εὐθύφρων
οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅτι λέγεις Σώκρατες.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλ᾽ ἐγὼ πειράσομαι σαφέστερον φράσαιλέγομέν τι φερόμενον καὶ φέρον καὶ ἀγόμενον καὶ ἄγον καὶ ὁρώμενον καὶ ὁρῶν καὶ πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα μανθάνεις ὅτι ἕτερα ἀλλήλων ἐστὶ καὶ  ἕτερα;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγέ μοι δοκῶ μανθάνειν.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν καὶ φιλούμενόν τί ἐστιν καὶ τούτου ἕτερον τὸ φιλοῦν;

Εὐθύφρων
πῶς γὰρ οὔ;

[10a] Just consider this question:—Is that which is holy loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved by the gods?

Euthyphro
I don’t know what you mean, Socrates.

Socrates
Then I will try to speak more clearly. We speak of being carried and of carrying, of being led and of leading, of being seen and of seeing; and you understand—do you not?—that in all such expressions the two parts differ one from the other in meaning, and how they differ.

Euthyphro
I think I understand.

Socrates
Then, too, we conceive of a thing being loved and of a thing loving, and the two are different?

Euthyphro
Of course.

[10β]

Σωκράτης
λέγε δή μοιπότερον τὸ φερόμενον διότι φέρεται φερόμενόν ἐστιν δι᾽ ἄλλο τι;γ

Εὐθύφρων
οὔκἀλλὰ διὰ τοῦτο.

Σωκράτης
καὶ τὸ ἀγόμενον δὴ διότι ἄγεταικαὶ τὸ ὁρώμενον διότι ὁρᾶται;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
οὐκ ἄρα διότι ὁρώμενόν γέ ἐστινδιὰ τοῦτο ὁρᾶταιἀλλὰ τὸ ἐναντίον διότι ὁρᾶταιδιὰ τοῦτο ὁρώμενονοὐδὲ διότι ἀγόμενόν ἐστινδιὰ τοῦτο ἄγεταιἀλλὰ διότι ἄγεταιδιὰ τοῦτο ἀγόμενονοὐδὲ διότι φερόμενον φέρεταιἀλλὰ διότι φέρεται φερόμενονἆρα κατάδηλον Εὐθύφρων

[10b] Socrates. Now tell me, is a thing which is carried a carried thing because one carries it, or for some other reason?

Euthyphro
No, for that reason.

Socrates
And a thing which is led is led because one leads it, and a thing which is seen is so because one sees it?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
Then one does not see it because its a seen thing, but, on the contrary, it is a seen thing because one sees it; and one does not lead it because it is a led thing, but it is a led thing because one leads it; and one does not carry it because it is a carried thing, but it is a carried thing because one carries it. Is it clear, Euthyphro,

[10ξ] βούλομαι λέγεινβούλομαι δὲ τόδεὅτι εἴ τι γίγνεται  τι πάσχειοὐχ ὅτι γιγνόμενόν ἐστι γίγνεταιἀλλ᾽ ὅτι γίγνεται γιγνόμενόν ἐστινοὐδ᾽ ὅτι πάσχον ἐστὶ πάσχειἀλλ᾽ ὅτι πάσχει πάσχον ἐστίν οὐ συγχωρεῖς οὕτω;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν καὶ τὸ φιλούμενον  γιγνόμενόν τί ἐστιν  πάσχον τι ὑπό του;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
καὶ τοῦτο ἄρα οὕτως ἔχει ὥσπερ τὰ πρότεραοὐχ ὅτι φιλούμενόν ἐστιν φιλεῖται ὑπὸ ὧν φιλεῖταιἀλλ᾽ ὅτι φιλεῖται φιλούμενον;

Εὐθύφρων
ἀνάγκη.

[10c] what I am trying to say? I am trying to say this, that if anything becomes or undergoes, it does not become because it is in a state of becoming, but it is in a state of becoming because it becomes, and it does not undergo because it is a thing which undergoes, but because it undergoes it is a thing which undergoes; or do you not agree to this?

Euthyphro
I agree.

Socrates
Is not that which is beloved a thing which is either becoming or undergoing something?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
And is this case like the former ones: those who love it do not love it because it is a bad thing, but it is a beloved thing because they love it?

Euthyphro
Obviously.

Socrates
Now what do you say about that which is holy,

[10δ]

Σωκράτης
τί δὴ οὖν λέγομεν περὶ τοῦ ὁσίου Εὐθύφρωνἄλλο τι φιλεῖται ὑπὸ θεῶν πάντωνὡς  σὸς λόγος;γ

Εὐθύφρων
ναί.

Σωκράτης
ἆρα διὰ τοῦτοὅτι ὅσιόν ἐστιν δι᾽ ἄλλο τι;

Εὐθύφρων
οὔκἀλλὰ διὰ τοῦτο.

Σωκράτης
διότι ἄρα ὅσιόν ἐστιν φιλεῖταιἀλλ᾽ οὐχ ὅτι φιλεῖταιδιὰ τοῦτο ὅσιόν ἐστιν;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔοικεν.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλὰ μὲν δὴ διότι γε φιλεῖται ὑπὸ θεῶν φιλούμενόν ἐστι καὶ θεοφιλές.

Εὐθύφρων
πῶς γὰρ οὔ;

Σωκράτης
οὐκ ἄρα τὸ θεοφιλὲς ὅσιόν ἐστιν Εὐθύφρωνοὐδὲ τὸ ὅσιον θεοφιλέςὡς σὺ λέγειςἀλλ᾽ ἕτερον τοῦτο τούτου.

[10d]

Euthyphro
It is loved by all the gods, is it not, according to what you said?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
For this reason, because it is holy, or for some other reason?

Euthyphro
No, for this reason.

Socrates
It is loved because it is holy, not holy because it is loved?

Euthyphro
I think so.

Socrates
But that which is dear to the gods is dear to them and beloved by them because they love it.

[10ε]

Εὐθύφρων
πῶς δή Σώκρατες;γ

Σωκράτης
ὅτι ὁμολογοῦμεν τὸ μὲν ὅσιον διὰ τοῦτο φιλεῖσθαιὅτι ὅσιόν ἐστινἀλλ᾽ οὐ διότι φιλεῖται ὅσιον εἶναι γάρ;

Εὐθύφρων
ναί.

Σωκράτης
τὸ δέ γε θεοφιλὲς ὅτι φιλεῖται ὑπὸ θεῶναὐτῷ τούτῳ τῷ φιλεῖσθαι θεοφιλὲς εἶναιἀλλ᾽ οὐχ ὅτι θεοφιλέςδιὰ τοῦτο φιλεῖσθαι.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀληθῆ λέγεις.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλ᾽ εἴ γε ταὐτὸν ἦν φίλε Εὐθύφρωντὸ θεοφιλὲς καὶ τὸ ὅσιονεἰ μὲν διὰ τὸ ὅσιον εἶναι ἐφιλεῖτο τὸ

[10e]

Euthyphro
Of course.

Socrates
Then that which is dear to the gods and that which is holy are not identical, but differ one from the other.

Euthyphro
How so, Socrates?

Socrates
Because we are agreed that the holy is loved because it is holy and that it is not holy because it is loved; are we not?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
But we are agreed that what is dear to the gods is dear to them because they love it, that is, by reason of this love, not that they love it because it is dear.

Euthyphro
Very true.

Socrates
But if that which is dear to the gods and that which is holy were identical, my dear Euthyphro, then if the holy

[11α] ὅσιονκαὶ διὰ τὸ θεοφιλὲς εἶναι ἐφιλεῖτο ἂν τὸ θεοφιλέςεἰ δὲ διὰ τὸ φιλεῖσθαι ὑπὸ θεῶν τὸ θεοφιλὲς θεοφιλὲς ἦνκαὶ τὸ ὅσιον ἂν διὰ τὸ φιλεῖσθαι ὅσιον ἦννῦν δὲ ὁρᾷς ὅτι ἐναντίως ἔχετονὡς παντάπασιν ἑτέρω ὄντε ἀλλήλωντὸ μὲν γάρὅτι φιλεῖταιἐστὶν οἷον φιλεῖσθαιτὸ δ᾽ ὅτι ἐστὶν οἷον φιλεῖσθαιδιὰ τοῦτο φιλεῖταικαὶ κινδυνεύεις Εὐθύφρωνἐρωτώμενος τὸ ὅσιον ὅτι ποτ᾽ ἐστίντὴν μὲν οὐσίαν μοι αὐτοῦ οὐ βούλεσθαι δηλῶσαιπάθος δέ τι περὶ αὐτοῦ λέγεινὅτι πέπονθε τοῦτο τὸ ὅσιονφιλεῖσθαι ὑπὸ πάντων

[11a] were loved because it is holy, that which is dear to the gods would be loved because it is dear, and if that which is dear to the gods is dear because it is loved, then that which is holy would be holy because it is loved; but now you see that the opposite is the case, showing that the two are different from each other. For the one becomes lovable from the fact that it is loved, whereas the other is loved because it is in itself lovable. And, Euthyphro, it seems that when you were asked what holiness is you were unwilling to make plain its essence, but you mentioned something that has happened to this holiness, namely,

[11β] θεῶνὅτι δὲ ὄνοὔπω εἶπεςεἰ οὖν σοι φίλονμή με ἀποκρύψῃ ἀλλὰ πάλιν εἰπὲ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τί ποτε ὂν τὸ ὅσιον εἴτε φιλεῖται ὑπὸ θεῶν εἴτε ὁτιδὴ πάσχειοὐ γὰρ περὶ τούτου διοισόμεθαἀλλ᾽ εἰπὲ προθύμως τί ἐστιν τό τε ὅσιον καὶ τὸ ἀνόσιον;

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ Σώκρατεςοὐκ ἔχω ἔγωγε ὅπως σοι εἴπω  νοῶπεριέρχεται γάρ πως ἡμῖν ἀεὶ  ἂν προθώμεθα καὶ οὐκ ἐθέλει μένειν ὅπου ἂν ἱδρυσώμεθα αὐτό.

Σωκράτης
τοῦ ἡμετέρου προγόνου Εὐθύφρωνἔοικεν εἶναι

[11b] that it is loved by the gods. But you did not tell as yet what it really is. So, if you please, do not hide it from me, but begin over again and tell me what holiness is, no matter whether it is loved by the gods or anything else happens it; for we shall not quarrel about that. But tell me frankly, What is holiness, and what is unholiness?

Euthyphro
But, Socrates, I do not know how to say what I mean. For whatever statement we advance, somehow or other it moves about and won’t stay where we put it.

Socrates
Your statements, Euthyphro,

[11ξ] Δαιδάλου τὰ ὑπὸ σοῦ λεγόμενακαὶ εἰ μὲν αὐτὰ ἐγὼ ἔλεγον καὶ ἐτιθέμηνἴσως ἄν με ἐπέσκωπτες ὡς ἄρα καὶ ἐμοὶ κατὰ τὴν ἐκείνου συγγένειαν τὰ ἐν τοῖς λόγοις ἔργα ἀποδιδράσκει καὶ οὐκ ἐθέλει μένειν ὅπου ἄν τις αὐτὰ θῇνῦν δὲ σαὶ γὰρ αἱ ὑποθέσεις εἰσίνἄλλου δή τινος δεῖ σκώμματοςοὐ γὰρ ἐθέλουσι σοὶ μένεινὡς καὶ αὐτῷ σοι δοκεῖ.

Εὐθύφρων
ἐμοὶ δὲ δοκεῖ σχεδόν τι τοῦ αὐτοῦ σκώμματος Σώκρατεςδεῖσθαι τὰ λεγόμενατὸ γὰρ περιιέναι αὐτοῖς τοῦτο καὶ μὴ μένειν ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐγώ εἰμι  ἐντιθείς,

[11c] are like works of my1 ancestor Daedalus, and if I were the one who made or advanced them, you might laugh at me and say that on account of my relationship to him my works in words run away and won’t stay where they are put. But now—well, the statements are yours; so some other jest is demanded; for they stay fixed, as you yourself see.

Euthyphro
I think the jest does very well as it is;

1 Socrates was the son of a sculptor and was himself educated to be a sculptor. This is doubtless the reason for his reference to Daedalus as an ancestor. Daedalus was a half mythical personage whose statues were said to have been so lifelike that they moved their eyes and walked about.

[11δ] ἀλλὰ σύ μοι δοκεῖς  Δαίδαλοςἐπεὶ ἐμοῦ γε ἕνεκα ἔμενεν ἂν ταῦτα οὕτως.

Σωκράτης
κινδυνεύω ἄρα ἑταῖρεἐκείνου τοῦ ἀνδρὸς δεινότερος γεγονέναι τὴν τέχνην τοσούτῳὅσῳ  μὲν τὰ αὑτοῦ μόνα ἐποίει οὐ μένονταἐγὼ δὲ πρὸς τοῖς ἐμαυτοῦὡς ἔοικεκαὶ τὰ ἀλλότριακαὶ δῆτα τοῦτό μοι τῆς τέχνης ἐστὶ κομψότατονὅτι ἄκων εἰμὶ σοφόςἐβουλόμην γὰρ ἄν μοι τοὺς λόγους μένειν καὶ ἀκινήτως ἱδρῦσθαι μᾶλλον  πρὸς τῇ

[11d] for I am not the one who makes these statements move about and not stay in the same place, but you are the Daedalus; for they would have stayed, so far as I am concerned.

Socrates
Apparently then, my friend, I am a more clever artist than Daedalus, inasmuch as he made only his own works move, whereas I, as it seems, give motion to the works of others as well as to my own.

[11ε] Δαιδάλου σοφίᾳ τὰ Ταντάλου χρήματα γενέσθαικαὶ τούτων μὲν ἅδηνἐπειδὴ δέ μοι δοκεῖς σὺ τρυφᾶναὐτός σοι συμπροθυμήσομαι δεῖξαι ὅπως ἄν με διδάξῃς περὶ τοῦ ὁσίουκαὶ μὴ προαποκάμῃςἰδὲ γὰρ εἰ οὐκ ἀναγκαῖόν σοι δοκεῖ δίκαιον εἶναι πᾶν τὸ ὅσιον.

Εὐθύφρων
ἔμοιγε.

Σωκράτης
ἆρ᾽ οὖν καὶ πᾶν τὸ δίκαιον ὅσιον τὸ μὲν ὅσιον

[11e] And the most exquisite thing about my art is that I am clever against my will; for I would rather have my words stay fixed and stable than possess the wisdom of Daedalus and the wealth of Tantalus besides. But enough of this. Since you seem to be indolent, I will aid you myself, so that you may instruct me about holiness. And do not give it up beforehand. Just see whether you do not think that everything that is holy is right.

Euthyphro
I do.

Socrates
But is everything that is right also holy?

[12α] πᾶν δίκαιοντὸ δὲ δίκαιον οὐ πᾶν ὅσιονἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν αὐτοῦ ὅσιοντὸ δέ τι καὶ ἄλλο;

Εὐθύφρων
οὐχ ἕπομαι Σώκρατεςτοῖς λεγομένοις.

Σωκράτης
καὶ μὴν νεώτερός γέ μου εἶ οὐκ ἔλαττον  ὅσῳ σοφώτεροςἀλλ᾽ λέγωτρυφᾷς ὑπὸ πλούτου τῆς σοφίαςἀλλ᾽ μακάριεσύντεινε σαυτόνκαὶ γὰρ οὐδὲ χαλεπὸν κατανοῆσαι  λέγωλέγω γὰρ δὴ τὸ ἐναντίον   ποιητὴς ἐποίησεν  ποιήσας—“Ζῆνα δὲ τὸν θ᾽ ἔρξαντα καὶ ὃς τάδε πάντ᾽ ἐφύτευσεν

[12a] Or is all which is holy right, and not all which is right holy, but part of it holy and part something else?

Euthyphro
I can’t follow you, Socrates.

Socrates
And yet you are as much younger than I as you are wiser; but, as I said, you are indolent on account of your wealth of wisdom. But exert yourself, my friend; for it is not hard to understand what I mean. What I mean is the opposite of what the poet said, who wrote: “Zeus the creator, him who made all things,”

[12β]

οὐκ ἐθέλει νεικεῖνἵνα γὰρ δέος ἔνθα καὶ αἰδώς.” Stasinus Cypria Fr. 20

ἐγὼ οὖν τούτῳ διαφέρομαι τῷ ποιητῇεἴπω σοι ὅπῃ;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
οὐ δοκεῖ μοι εἶναι ‘ἵνα δέος ἔνθα καὶ αἰδώς’ πολλοὶ γάρ μοι δοκοῦσι καὶ νόσους καὶ πενίας καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ τοιαῦτα δεδιότες δεδιέναι μέναἰδεῖσθαι δὲ μηδὲν ταῦτα  δεδίασινοὐ καὶ σοὶ δοκεῖ;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα γε αἰδὼς ἔνθα καὶ δέος εἶναιἐπεὶ ἔστιν ὅστις αἰδούμενός τι πρᾶγμα καὶ αἰσχυνόμενος οὐ πεφόβηταί

[12b] “thou wilt not name; for where fear is, there also is reverence.” Stasinus, author of the Cypria (Fragm. 20, ed. Kinkel) Now I disagree with the poet. Shall I tell you how?

Euthyphro
By all means.

Socrates
It does not seem to me true that where fear is, there also is reverence; for many who fear diseases and poverty and other such things seem to me to fear, but not to reverence at all these things which they fear. Don’t you think so, too?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
But I think that where reverence is, there also is fear; for does not everyone who has a feeling of reverence and shame about any act

[12ξ] τε καὶ δέδοικεν ἅμα δόξαν πονηρίας;

Εὐθύφρων
δέδοικε μὲν οὖν.

Σωκράτης
οὐκ ἄρ᾽ ὀρθῶς ἔχει λέγειν: ‘ἵνα γὰρ δέος ἔνθα καὶ αἰδώς,’ ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα μὲν αἰδὼς ἔνθα καὶ δέοςοὐ μέντοι ἵνα γε δέος πανταχοῦ αἰδώςἐπὶ πλέον γὰρ οἶμαι δέος αἰδοῦςμόριον γὰρ αἰδὼς δέους ὥσπερ ἀριθμοῦ περιττόνὥστε οὐχ ἵναπερ ἀριθμὸς ἔνθα καὶ περιττόνἵνα δὲ περιττὸν ἔνθα καὶ ἀριθμόςἕπῃ γάρ που νῦν γε;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
τὸ τοιοῦτον τοίνυν καὶ ἐκεῖ λέγων ἠρώτωνἆρα ἵνα

[12c] also dread and fear the reputation for wickedness?

Euthyphro
Yes, he does fear.

Socrates
Then it is not correct to say “where fear is, there also is reverence.” On the contrary, where reverence is, there also is fear; but reverence is not everywhere where fear is, since, as I think, fear is more comprehensive than reverence; for reverence is a part of fear, just as the odd is a part of number, so that it is not true that where number is, there also is the odd, but that where the odd is, there also is number. Perhaps you follow me now?

Euthyphro
Perfectly.

Socrates
It was something of this sort that I meant before, when I asked whether where the right is, there also is holiness, or where holiness is,

[12δ] δίκαιον ἔνθα καὶ ὅσιον ἵνα μὲν ὅσιον ἔνθα καὶ δίκαιονἵνα δὲ δίκαιον οὐ πανταχοῦ ὅσιονμόριον γὰρ τοῦ δικαίου τὸ ὅσιονοὕτω φῶμεν  ἄλλως σοι δοκεῖ;

Εὐθύφρων
οὔκἀλλ᾽ οὕτωφαίνῃ γάρ μοι ὀρθῶς λέγειν.

Σωκράτης
ὅρα δὴ τὸ μετὰ τοῦτοεἰ γὰρ μέρος τὸ ὅσιον τοῦ δικαίουδεῖ δὴ ἡμᾶςὡς ἔοικενἐξευρεῖν τὸ ποῖον μέρος ἂν εἴη τοῦ δικαίου τὸ ὅσιονεἰ μὲν οὖν σύ με ἠρώτας τι τῶν νυνδήοἷον ποῖον μέρος ἐστὶν ἀριθμοῦ τὸ ἄρτιον καὶ τίς ὢν τυγχάνει οὗτος  ἀριθμόςεἶπον ἂν ὅτι ὃς ἂν μὴ σκαληνὸς  ἀλλ᾽ ἰσοσκελής οὐ δοκεῖ σοι;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔμοιγε.

[12d] there also is the right; but holiness is not everywhere where the right is, for holiness is a part of the right. Do we agree to this, or do you dissent?

Euthyphro
No, I agree; for I think the statement is correct.

Socrates
Now observe the next point. If holiness is a part of the right, we must, apparently, find out what part of the right holiness is. Now if you asked me about one of the things I just mentioned, as, for example, what part of number the even was, and what kind of a number it was I should say, “that which is not indivisible by two, but divisible by two”; or don’t you agree?

Euthyphro
I agree.

[12ε]

Σωκράτης
πειρῶ δὴ καὶ σὺ ἐμὲ οὕτω διδάξαι τὸ ποῖον μέρος τοῦ δικαίου ὅσιόν ἐστινἵνα καὶ Μελήτῳ λέγωμεν μηκέθ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἀδικεῖν μηδὲ ἀσεβείας γράφεσθαιὡς ἱκανῶς ἤδη παρὰ σοῦ μεμαθηκότας τά τε εὐσεβῆ καὶ ὅσια καὶ τὰ μή.

Εὐθύφρων
τοῦτο τοίνυν ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ Σώκρατεςτὸ μέρος τοῦ δικαίου εἶναι εὐσεβές τε καὶ ὅσιοντὸ περὶ τὴν τῶν θεῶν θεραπείαντὸ δὲ περὶ τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸ λοιπὸν εἶναι τοῦ δικαίου μέρος.

Σωκράτης
καὶ καλῶς γέ μοι Εὐθύφρωνφαίνῃ λέγεινἀλλὰ

[12e] Socrates. Now try in your turn to teach me what part of the right holiness is, that I may tell Meletus not to wrong me any more or bring suits against me for impiety, since I have now been duly instructed by you about what is, and what is not, pious and holy.

Euthyphro
This then is my opinion, Socrates, that the part of the right which has to do with attention to the gods constitutes piety and holiness, and that the remaining part of the right is that which has to do with the service of men.

Socrates
I think you are correct, Euthyphro;

[13α] σμικροῦ τινος ἔτι ἐνδεής εἰμιτὴν γὰρ θεραπείαν οὔπω συνίημι ἥντινα ὀνομάζειςοὐ γάρ που λέγεις γεοἷαίπερ καὶ αἱ περὶ τὰ ἄλλα θεραπεῖαί εἰσιντοιαύτην καὶ περὶ θεούς— λέγομεν γάρ πουοἷόν φαμεν ἵππους οὐ πᾶς ἐπίσταται θεραπεύειν ἀλλὰ  ἱππικός γάρ;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
 γάρ που ἱππικὴ ἵππων θεραπεία.

Εὐθύφρων
ναί.

Σωκράτης
οὐδέ γε κύνας πᾶς ἐπίσταται θεραπεύειν ἀλλὰ  κυνηγετικός.

Εὐθύφρων
οὕτω.

Σωκράτης
 γάρ που κυνηγετικὴ κυνῶν θεραπεία.

[13a] but there is one little point about which I still want information, for I do not yet understand what you mean by “attention.” I don’t suppose you mean the same kind of attention to the gods which is paid to other things. We say, for example, that not everyone knows how to attend to horses, but only he who is skilled in horsemanship, do we not?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
Then horsemanship is the art of attending to horses?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
And not everyone knows how to attend to dogs, but only the huntsman?

Euthyphro
That is so.

Socrates
Then the huntsman’s art is the art of attending to dogs?

[13β]

Εὐθύφρων
ναί.

Σωκράτης
 δέ γε βοηλατικὴ βοῶν.

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
 δὲ δὴ ὁσιότης τε καὶ εὐσέβεια θεῶν Εὐθύφρωνοὕτω λέγεις;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν θεραπεία γε πᾶσα ταὐτὸν διαπράττεταιοἷον τοιόνδεἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῷ τινί ἐστι καὶ ὠφελίᾳ τοῦ θεραπευομένουὥσπερ ὁρᾷς δὴ ὅτι οἱ ἵπποι ὑπὸ τῆς ἱππικῆς θεραπευόμενοι ὠφελοῦνται καὶ βελτίους γίγνονται οὐ δοκοῦσί σοι;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔμοιγε.

Σωκράτης
καὶ οἱ κύνες γέ που ὑπὸ τῆς κυνηγετικῆςκαὶ οἱ

[13b]

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
And the oxherd’s art is that of attending to oxen?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
And holiness and piety is the art of attending to the gods? Is that what you mean, Euthyphro?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
Now does attention always aim to accomplish the same end? I mean something like this: It aims at some good or benefit to the one to whom it is given, as you see that horses, when attended to by the horseman’s art are benefited and made better; or don’t you think so?

Euthyphro
Yes, I do.

Socrates
And dogs are benefited by the huntsman’s art

[13ξ] βόες ὑπὸ τῆς βοηλατικῆςκαὶ τἆλλα πάντα ὡσαύτως ἐπὶ βλάβῃ οἴει τοῦ θεραπευομένου τὴν θεραπείαν εἶναι;

Εὐθύφρων
μὰ Δί᾽ οὐκ ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ὠφελίᾳ;

Εὐθύφρων
πῶς δ᾽ οὔ;

Σωκράτης
 οὖν καὶ  ὁσιότης θεραπεία οὖσα θεῶν ὠφελία τέ ἐστι θεῶν καὶ βελτίους τοὺς θεοὺς ποιεῖκαὶ σὺ τοῦτο συγχωρήσαις ἄνὡς ἐπειδάν τι ὅσιον ποιῇςβελτίω τινὰ τῶν θεῶν ἀπεργάζῃ;

Εὐθύφρων
μὰ Δί᾽ οὐκ ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐγώ Εὐθύφρωνοἶμαί σε τοῦτο λέγειν —πολλοῦ καὶ δέωἀλλὰ τούτου δὴ ἕνεκα καὶ ἀνηρόμην

[13c] and oxen by the oxherd’s and everything else in the same way? Or do you think care and attention are ever meant for the injury of that which is cared for?

Euthyphro
No, by Zeus, I do not.

Socrates
But for its benefit?

Euthyphro
Of course.

Socrates
Then holiness, since it is the art of attending to the gods, is a benefit to the gods, and makes them better? And you would agree that when you do a holy or pious act you are making one of the gods better?

Euthyphro
No, by Zeus, not I.

Socrates
Nor do I, Euthyphro, think that is what you meant. Far from it. But I asked what you meant by

[13δ] τίνα ποτὲ λέγοις τὴν θεραπείαν τῶν θεῶνοὐχ ἡγούμενός σε τοιαύτην λέγειν.

Εὐθύφρων
καὶ ὀρθῶς γε Σώκρατεςοὐ γὰρ τοιαύτην λέγω.

Σωκράτης
εἶενἀλλὰ τίς δὴ θεῶν θεραπεία εἴη ἂν  ὁσιότης;

Εὐθύφρων
ἥνπερ Σώκρατεςοἱ δοῦλοι τοὺς δεσπότας θεραπεύουσιν.

Σωκράτης
μανθάνωὑπηρετική τις ἄνὡς ἔοικενεἴη θεοῖς.

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ μὲν οὖν.

Σωκράτης
ἔχοις ἂν οὖν εἰπεῖν  ἰατροῖς ὑπηρετικὴ εἰς τίνος ἔργου ἀπεργασίαν τυγχάνει οὖσα ὑπηρετικήοὐκ εἰς ὑγιείας οἴει;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγε.

[13d] “attention to the gods” just because I did not think you meant anything like that.

Euthyphro
You are right, Socrates; that is not what I mean.

Socrates
Well, what kind of attention to the gods is holiness?

Euthyphro
The kind, Socrates, that servants pay to their masters.

Socrates
I understand. It is, you mean, a kind of service to the gods?

Euthyphro
Exactly.

Socrates
Now can you tell me what result the art that serves the physician serves to produce? Is it not health?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
Well then; what is it which the art

[13ε]

Σωκράτης
τί δὲ  ναυπηγοῖς ὑπηρετικήεἰς τίνος ἔργου ἀπεργασίαν ὑπηρετική ἐστιν;γ

Εὐθύφρων
δῆλον ὅτι Σώκρατεςεἰς πλοίου.

Σωκράτης
καὶ  οἰκοδόμοις γέ που εἰς οἰκίας;

Εὐθύφρων
ναί.

Σωκράτης
εἰπὲ δή ἄριστε δὲ θεοῖς ὑπηρετικὴ εἰς τίνος ἔργου ἀπεργασίαν ὑπηρετικὴ ἂν εἴηδῆλον γὰρ ὅτι σὺ οἶσθαἐπειδήπερ τά γε θεῖα κάλλιστα φῂς εἰδέναι ἀνθρώπων.

Εὐθύφρων
καὶ ἀληθῆ γε λέγω Σώκρατες.

Σωκράτης
εἰπὲ δὴ πρὸς Διὸς τί ποτέ ἐστιν ἐκεῖνο τὸ πάγκαλον ἔργον  οἱ θεοὶ ἀπεργάζονται ἡμῖν ὑπηρέταις χρώμενοι;

Εὐθύφρων
πολλὰ καὶ καλά Σώκρατες.

[13e] that serves shipbuilders serves to produce?

Euthyphro
Evidently, Socrates, a ship.

Socrates
And that which serves housebuilders serves to build a house?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
Then tell me, my friend; what would the art which serves the gods serve to accomplish? For it is evident that you know, since you say you know more than any other man about matters which have to do with the gods.

Euthyphro
And what I say is true, Socrates.

Socrates
Then, in the name of Zeus, tell me, what is that glorious result which the gods accomplish by using us as servants?

Euthyphro
They accomplish many fine results, Socrates.

[14α]

Σωκράτης
καὶ γὰρ οἱ στρατηγοί φίλεἀλλ᾽ ὅμως τὸ κεφάλαιον αὐτῶν ῥᾳδίως ἂν εἴποιςὅτι νίκην ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ ἀπεργάζονται οὔ;γ

Εὐθύφρων
πῶς δ᾽ οὔ;

Σωκράτης
πολλὰ δέ γ᾽οἶμαικαὶ καλὰ καὶ οἱ γεωργοίἀλλ᾽ ὅμως τὸ κεφάλαιον αὐτῶν ἐστιν τῆς ἀπεργασίας  ἐκ τῆς γῆς τροφή.

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
τί δὲ δὴ τῶν πολλῶν καὶ καλῶν  οἱ θεοὶ ἀπεργάζονταιτί τὸ κεφάλαιόν ἐστι τῆς ἐργασίας;

Εὐθύφρων
καὶ ὀλίγον σοι πρότερον εἶπον Σώκρατεςὅτι

[14a]

Socrates
Yes, and so do generals, my friend; but nevertheless, you could easily tell the chief of them, namely, that they bring about victory in war. Is that not the case?

Euthyphro
Of course.

Socrates
And farmers also, I think, accomplish many fine results; but still the chief result of their work is food from the land?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
But how about the many fine results the gods accomplish? What is the chief result of their work?

Euthyphro
I told you a while ago, Socrates,

[14β] πλείονος ἔργου ἐστὶν ἀκριβῶς πάντα ταῦτα ὡς ἔχει μαθεῖντόδε μέντοι σοι ἁπλῶς λέγωὅτι ἐὰν μὲν κεχαρισμένα τις ἐπίστηται τοῖς θεοῖς λέγειν τε καὶ πράττειν εὐχόμενός τε καὶ θύωνταῦτ᾽ ἔστι τὰ ὅσιακαὶ σῴζει τὰ τοιαῦτα τούς τε ἰδίους οἴκους καὶ τὰ κοινὰ τῶν πόλεωντὰ δ᾽ ἐναντία τῶν κεχαρισμένων ἀσεβῆ δὴ καὶ ἀνατρέπει ἅπαντα καὶ ἀπόλλυσιν.

Σωκράτης
 πολύ μοι διὰ βραχυτέρων Εὐθύφρωνεἰ ἐβούλουεἶπες ἂν τὸ κεφάλαιον ὧν ἠρώτωνἀλλὰ γὰρ οὐ

[14b] that it is a long task to learn accurately all about these things. However, I say simply that when one knows how to say and do what is gratifying to the gods, in praying and sacrificing, that is holiness, and such things bring salvation to individual families and to states; and the opposite of what is gratifying to the gods is impious, and that overturns and destroys everything.

Socrates
You might, if you wished, Euthyphro, have answered much more briefly the chief part of my question. But it is plain that you do not care to instruct me.

[14ξ] πρόθυμός με εἶ διδάξαιδῆλος εἶκαὶ γὰρ νῦν ἐπειδὴ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ἦσθα ἀπετράπου εἰ ἀπεκρίνωἱκανῶς ἂν ἤδη παρὰ σοῦ τὴν ὁσιότητα ἐμεμαθήκηνῦν δὲ ἀνάγκη γὰρ τὸν ἐρῶντα τῷ ἐρωμένῳ ἀκολουθεῖν ὅπῃ ἂν ἐκεῖνος ὑπάγῃτί δὴ αὖ λέγεις τὸ ὅσιον εἶναι καὶ τὴν ὁσιότηταοὐχὶ ἐπιστήμην τινὰ τοῦ θύειν τε καὶ εὔχεσθαι;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν τὸ θύειν δωρεῖσθαί ἐστι τοῖς θεοῖςτὸ δ᾽ εὔχεσθαι αἰτεῖν τοὺς θεούς;

Εὐθύφρων
καὶ μάλα Σώκρατες.

[14c] For now, when you were close upon it you turned aside; and if you had answered it, I should already have obtained from you all the instruction I need about holiness. But, as things are, the questioner must follow the one questioned wherever he leads. What do you say the holy, or holiness, is? Do you not say that it is a kind of science of sacrificing and praying?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
And sacrificing is making gifts to the gods

[14δ]

Σωκράτης
ἐπιστήμη ἄρα αἰτήσεως καὶ δόσεως θεοῖς ὁσιότης ἂν εἴη ἐκ τούτου τοῦ λόγου.

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ καλῶς Σώκρατεςσυνῆκας  εἶπον.

Σωκράτης
ἐπιθυμητὴς γάρ εἰμι φίλετῆς σῆς σοφίας καὶ προσέχω τὸν νοῦν αὐτῇὥστε οὐ χαμαὶ πεσεῖται ὅτι ἂν εἴπῃςἀλλά μοι λέξον τίς αὕτη  ὑπηρεσία ἐστὶ τοῖς θεοῖςαἰτεῖν τε φῂς αὐτοὺς καὶ διδόναι ἐκείνοις;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
ἆρ᾽ οὖν οὐ τό γε ὀρθῶς αἰτεῖν ἂν εἴη ὧν δεόμεθα παρ᾽ ἐκείνωνταῦτα αὐτοὺς αἰτεῖν;

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλὰ τί;

[14d] and praying is asking from them?

Euthyphro
Exactly, Socrates.

Socrates
Then holiness, according to this definition, would be a science of giving and asking.

Euthyphro
You understand perfectly what I said, Socrates.

Socrates
Yes, my friend, for I am eager for your wisdom, and give my mind to it, so that nothing you say shall fall to the ground. But tell me, what is this service of the gods? Do you say that it consists in asking from them and giving to them?

Euthyphro
Yes.

Socrates
Would not the right way of asking be to ask of them what we need from them?

Euthyphro
What else?

Socrates
And the right way of giving, to present them with

[14ε]

Σωκράτης
καὶ αὖ τὸ διδόναι ὀρθῶςὧν ἐκεῖνοι τυγχάνουσιν δεόμενοι παρ᾽ ἡμῶνταῦτα ἐκείνοις αὖ ἀντιδωρεῖσθαιοὐ γάρ που τεχνικόν γ᾽ ἂν εἴη δωροφορεῖν διδόντα τῳ ταῦτα ὧν οὐδὲν δεῖται.

Εὐθύφρων
ἀληθῆ λέγεις Σώκρατες.

Σωκράτης
ἐμπορικὴ ἄρα τις ἂν εἴη Εὐθύφρωντέχνη  ὁσιότης θεοῖς καὶ ἀνθρώποις παρ᾽ ἀλλήλων.

Εὐθύφρων
ἐμπορικήεἰ οὕτως ἥδιόν σοι ὀνομάζειν.

Σωκράτης
ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲν ἥδιον ἔμοιγεεἰ μὴ τυγχάνει ἀληθὲς ὄνφράσον δέ μοιτίς  ὠφελία τοῖς θεοῖς τυγχάνει οὖσα ἀπὸ τῶν δώρων ὧν παρ᾽ ἡμῶν λαμβάνουσιν μὲν γὰρ διδόασι

[14e] what they need from us? For it would not be scientific giving to give anyone what he does not need.

Euthyphro
You are right, Socrates.

Socrates
Then holiness would be an art of barter between gods and men?

Euthyphro
Yes, of barter, if you like to call it so.

Socrates
I don’t like to call it so, if it is not true. But tell me, what advantage accrues to the gods from the gifts they get from us? For everybody knows what they give,

[15α] παντὶ δῆλονοὐδὲν γὰρ ἡμῖν ἐστιν ἀγαθὸν ὅτι ἂν μὴ ἐκεῖνοι δῶσιν δὲ παρ᾽ ἡμῶν λαμβάνουσιντί ὠφελοῦνται τοσοῦτον αὐτῶν πλεονεκτοῦμεν κατὰ τὴν ἐμπορίανὥστε πάντα τὰ ἀγαθὰ παρ᾽ αὐτῶν λαμβάνομενἐκεῖνοι δὲ παρ᾽ ἡμῶν οὐδέν;

Εὐθύφρων
ἀλλ᾽ οἴει Σώκρατεςτοὺς θεοὺς ὠφελεῖσθαι ἀπὸ τούτων  παρ᾽ ἡμῶν λαμβάνουσιν;γ

Σωκράτης
ἀλλὰ τί δήποτ᾽ ἂν εἴη ταῦτα Εὐθύφρωντὰ παρ᾽ ἡμῶν δῶρα τοῖς θεοῖς;

Εὐθύφρων
τί δ᾽ οἴει ἄλλο  τιμή τε καὶ γέρα καίὅπερ ἐγὼ ἄρτι ἔλεγονχάρις;

[15a] since we have nothing good which they do not give. But what advantage do they derive from what they get from us? Or have we so much the better of them in our bartering that we get all good things from them and they nothing from us?

Euthyphro
Why you don’t suppose, Socrates, that the gods gain any advantage from what they get from us, do you?

Socrates
Well then, what would those gifts of ours to the gods be?

Euthyphro
What else than honor and praise, and, as I said before, gratitude?

[15β]

Σωκράτης
κεχαρισμένον ἄρα ἐστίν Εὐθύφρωντὸ ὅσιονἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ ὠφέλιμον οὐδὲ φίλον τοῖς θεοῖς;γ

Εὐθύφρων
οἶμαι ἔγωγε πάντων γε μάλιστα φίλον.

Σωκράτης
τοῦτο ἄρ᾽ ἐστὶν αὖὡς ἔοικετὸ ὅσιοντὸ τοῖς θεοῖς φίλον.

Εὐθύφρων
μάλιστά γε.

Σωκράτης
θαυμάσῃ οὖν ταῦτα λέγων ἐάν σοι οἱ λόγοι φαίνωνται μὴ μένοντες ἀλλὰ βαδίζοντεςκαὶ ἐμὲ αἰτιάσῃ τὸν Δαίδαλον βαδίζοντας αὐτοὺς ποιεῖναὐτὸς ὢν πολύ γε τεχνικώτερος τοῦ Δαιδάλου καὶ κύκλῳ περιιόντα ποιῶν οὐκ αἰσθάνῃ ὅτι  λόγος ἡμῖν περιελθὼν πάλιν εἰς ταὐτὸν

[15b]

Socrates
Then, Euthyphro, holiness is grateful to the gods, but not advantageous or precious to the gods?

Euthyphro
I think it is precious, above all things.

Socrates
Then again, it seems, holiness is that which is precious to the gods.

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
Then will you be surprised, since you say this, if your words do not remain fixed but walk about, and will you accuse me of being the Daedalus who makes them walk, when you are yourself much more skilful than Daedalus and make them go round in a circle? Or do you not see

[15ξ] ἥκειμέμνησαι γάρ που ὅτι ἐν τῷ πρόσθεν τό τε ὅσιον καὶ τὸ θεοφιλὲς οὐ ταὐτὸν ἡμῖν ἐφάνη ἀλλ᾽ ἕτερα ἀλλήλων οὐ μέμνησαι;

Εὐθύφρων
ἔγωγε.

Σωκράτης
νῦν οὖν οὐκ ἐννοεῖς ὅτι τὸ τοῖς θεοῖς φίλον φῂς ὅσιον εἶναιτοῦτο δ᾽ ἄλλο τι  θεοφιλὲς γίγνεται οὔ;

Εὐθύφρων
πάνυ γε.

Σωκράτης
οὐκοῦν  ἄρτι οὐ καλῶς ὡμολογοῦμεν εἰ τότε καλῶςνῦν οὐκ ὀρθῶς τιθέμεθα.

Εὐθύφρων
ἔοικεν.

Σωκράτης
ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἄρα ἡμῖν πάλιν σκεπτέον τί ἐστι τὸ ὅσιονὡς ἐγὼ πρὶν ἂν μάθω ἑκὼν εἶναι οὐκ ἀποδειλιάσω.

[15c] that our definition has come round to the point from which it started? For you remember, I suppose, that a while ago we found that holiness and what is dear to the gods were not the same, but different from each other; or do you not remember?

Euthyphro
Yes, I remember.

Socrates
Then don’t you see that now you say that what is precious to the gods is holy? And is not this what is dear to the gods?

Euthyphro
Certainly.

Socrates
Then either our agreement a while ago was wrong, or if that was right, we are wrong now.

Euthyphro
So it seems.

Socrates
Then we must begin again at the beginning and ask what holiness is. Since I shall not willingly give up until I learn.

[15δ] ἀλλὰ μή με ἀτιμάσῃς ἀλλὰ παντὶ τρόπῳ προσσχὼν τὸν νοῦν ὅτι μάλιστα νῦν εἰπὲ τὴν ἀλήθειανοἶσθα γὰρ εἴπερ τις ἄλλος ἀνθρώπωνκαὶ οὐκ ἀφετέος εἶ ὥσπερ  Πρωτεὺς πρὶν ἂν εἴπῃςεἰ γὰρ μὴ ᾔδησθα σαφῶς τό τε ὅσιον καὶ τὸ ἀνόσιονοὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως ἄν ποτε ἐπεχείρησας ὑπὲρ ἀνδρὸς θητὸς ἄνδρα πρεσβύτην πατέρα διωκάθειν φόνουἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς θεοὺς ἂν ἔδεισας παρακινδυνεύειν μὴ οὐκ ὀρθῶς αὐτὸ ποιήσοιςκαὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ᾐσχύνθηςνῦν δὲ εὖ οἶδα ὅτι

[15d] And do not scorn me, but by all means apply your mind now to the utmost and tell me the truth; for you know, if anyone does, and like Proteus, you must be held until you speak. For if you had not clear knowledge of holiness and unholiness, you would surely not have undertaken to prosecute your aged father for murder for the sake of a servant. You would have been afraid to risk the anger of the gods, in case your conduct should be wrong, and would have been ashamed in the sight of men. But now I am sure

[15ε] σαφῶς οἴει εἰδέναι τό τε ὅσιον καὶ μήεἰπὲ οὖν βέλτιστε Εὐθύφρωνκαὶ μὴ ἀποκρύψῃ ὅτι αὐτὸ ἡγῇ.

Εὐθύφρων
εἰς αὖθις τοίνυν Σώκρατεςνῦν γὰρ σπεύδω ποικαί μοι ὥρα ἀπιέναι.

Σωκράτης
οἷα ποιεῖς ἑταῖρεἀπ᾽ ἐλπίδος με καταβαλὼν μεγάλης ἀπέρχῃ ἣν εἶχονὡς παρὰ σοῦ μαθὼν τά τε ὅσια καὶ μὴ καὶ τῆς πρὸς Μέλητον γραφῆς ἀπαλλάξομαιἐνδειξάμενος

[15e] you think you know what is holy and what is not. So tell me, most excellent Euthyphro, and do not conceal your thought.

Euthyphro
Some other time, Socrates. Now I am in a hurry and it is time for me to go.

Socrates
Oh my friend, what are you doing? You go away and leave me cast down from the high hope I had that I should learn from you what is holy, and what is not, and should get rid of Meletus’s indictment by showing him

[16α] ἐκείνῳ ὅτι σοφὸς ἤδη παρ᾽ Εὐθύφρονος τὰ θεῖα γέγονα καὶ ὅτι οὐκέτι ὑπ᾽ ἀγνοίας αὐτοσχεδιάζω οὐδὲ καινοτομῶ περὶ αὐτάκαὶ δὴ καὶ τὸν ἄλλον βίον ὅτι ἄμεινον βιωσοίμην.

[16a] that I have been made wise by Euthyphro about divine matters and am no longer through ignorance acting carelessly and making innovations in respect to them, and that I shall live a better life henceforth.

About Author

Daniel is the Founder and CEO of planksip®, which has a registered Canadian trademark describing a methodology of promoting and propagating thought concepts and intellectual property for non-fiction authors and Academics. As a Science and Philosophy writer, Daniel is an active blogger, author and father of two living on Vancouver Island. As self-described "Flâneur", Daniel draws inspiration for his epistemological schema on topics related to Newtonian Giants, Artificial Intelligence, Free Will, Philosophy, Psychology, Mathematics and Quantum Physics. Phrases like, "driven by Data and propagated through the Praxis of planksip®", summarize his 'modus operandi' of Truth supported by evidence and evolution.

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